Queens Regulations & Admiralty Instructions 1861
Queens Regulations & Admiralty Instructions 1861

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The Queens Regulations and the Admiralty Instructions - 1861




When a Captain or other Officer is appointed to command one of Her Majesty's Ships, he is to visit her throughout, in company with the Officers; and, if she be newly commissioned, with the Captain of the Reserve, the Master Shipwright, and (in Steam Ships) with the Chief Engineer of the Dock-yard, or their assistants, who will inform him of her condition, and of any alterations authorized by the Admiralty to be made in her. If any additions or further alterations are deemed advisable, or any variation from the usual establishment (but none such will be permitted with regard to Ships that have been commissioned before, or commissioned from the first-class steam reserve), application thereon is to be immediately made to the Admiralty, with all necessary explanation, and all such applications, after the fitting of the Ship has advanced, are to be carefully avoided.


The Captain will be furnished by the Superintendent of the Dock-yard with the reports of the stowage, trim, and qualities of the Ship, made by the Captains who previously commanded her; but if she be new, he will be provided by the Controller of the Navy with certain particulars for his guidance respecting her stowage and trim, to which attention is to be paid, and from which there is to be no deviation without its being reported to the Admiralty.


The Captain is to be very diligent in getting the Ship ready for sea, or for such other service as may be ordered; he is to inspect, and to forward, as far as he may be able, all works doing on board; and he is to report daily to the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer present, or, where there is no senior Officer, to the Secretary of the Admiralty, the progress made, and the state of the Ship. Should it be found necessary to extend the date originally fixed upon for the Ship being ready, the Captain is, forthwith, to report the reasons, by letter, to his Commander-in-chief, for the information of the Admiralty; and, in the event of there being any neglect or delay in her fitting on the part of the Dock-yard, he is to represent the same, where no senior Officer is present, to the Superintendent of the Yard, or to the Secretary of the Admiralty, as circumstances may require.

He is to make himself acquainted with the regulations of the Dock-yard, Victualling Yard, and Gun Wharf, with respect to the hours of working, and to the supplying or receiving of Stores, and to all other matters necessary for his guidance; and he is to co-operate with the Superintendents, and other heads of public departments, for the prompt fulfilment of all orders and instructions which may appertain to the service in which he is engaged.


All applications relating to the Ship, which require the authority of the Superintendent, are to be made to that Officer by the Captain, or the Commanding Officer, and, if called for, such applications are to be made in writing.


The spare topmasts, top-gallant masts, and sails, are to be tried before quitting the harbour where the Ship is fitting, to ascertain whether they require any alteration, and a report thereon, after trial, is to be made by the Captain, to the Commander-in-chief; at the same time, it is to be ascertained if the boats can carry the guns supplied for them, and are properly fitted for that purpose.


As soon as the Ship is out of the hands of the Dock-yard, after fitting or refitting, the Captain is to report to the Superintendent, in writing, that she is ready to be inspected by such Officers of the Yard as he may appoint. On the arrival of the Dock-yard Officers on board, the Captain is to cause the Officer next in seniority to himself, together with the Chief Engineer, or Carpenter, according as the inspection may appertain to either of their departments, to accompany them round the Ship, and to render them every assistance in ascertaining whether she is in all respects complete, or whether she has any defects. Immediately the inspections are completed, the Captain is to cause the reports of the result of the same, signed by the examining Dock-yard Officers, and by the Officers of the Ship, according as they may relate to their respective departments, as well as by himself, to be forwarded to the Commander-in-chief, and duplicates thereof to the Superintendent. If the Captain shall not fully concur in the statements that may be made in such reports, - and he is to take every possible means to satisfy himself of their correctness, - he is to represent to his Commander-in-chief, in writing, the points on which he dissents, and his reasons for so doing, bearing in mind that the object of these inspections is to ascertain whether the Ship be ready, and properly fitted, for the service on which she is to be employed.


When the Ship ia completely equipped, he is to require from the Master plans of the stowage of her hold, which plans, after having satisfied himself of their correctness, are to be dated, and signed by himself and the Master, and forwarded by him to the Superintendent of the Dock-yard where the Ship fitted out. He is also to furnish the Superintendent, before leaving the port, with a return, containing all the information required in the form which, on his application, will be supplied to him from the Dock-yard, relative to the number, quantity, and weight of all the gnus, shot, ballast, provisions, stores, water, &c., on board the Ship.


The Officer in command of any Ship recently built is, in due time, to make application to the proper authorities for such Ship to be re-caulked, in order to prevent any damage which may arise from the shrinking of the timber, which is unavoidable, more especially in tropical climates.


He is not, except in cases of absolute necessity, to make, or permit to be made, any alteration whatsoever in the establishment of the Ship's masts, yards, sails, or rigging, nor in her machinery, hull, decks, cabins, storerooms, or other external or internal fittings or arrangements; but he is to apply to his Commander-in-chief, if he be under the orders of one, and if not, to the Secretary of the Admiralty, for permission to make any alteration or addition which, from peculiar circumstances, he may deem necessary, observing that the cost of replacing fittings which may have been removed or altered (or of repairing any damage arising therefrom) as well as the cost of any additions made, without proper authority or evident necessity, will be charged against his pay.

On the Home Stations no alterations are to be made without the sanction of the Admiralty; and whenever they are found necessary in Ships abroad, a report of the circumstances under which they were made is to be sent by, or through, the Commander-in-chief on the Station, with proper plans and drawings, for the information of the Admiralty.


To guard against the injury which the lower masts of Her Majesty's Ships have frequently sustained in consequence of the injudicious manner in which they have been stayed, and the lower rigging set up, the following regulations are to be attended to when fitting or refitting:-

i. To regulate the setting up of rigging, and to determine if a lower mast is straight, a middle line should be cut on each of its sides and upon the after part. These lines should be painted a different colour from the rest of the mast, and extend from the tressel-tree to the heel. At the upper part of each line a small eyebolt should be placed, and on the line near the deck another such eyebolt. A rope line fastened to the upper one, and rove through the lower, and pulled tight, will, if the mast be straight, coincide with the middle line cut upon it; or, if not straight, the fact will be evident by the cut line and the rope not being parallel. The amount by which parallelism is departed from, will represent any curve the mast has taken.

ii. As the lines are to be cut from the heel of the mast to the tressel-tree, by knocking up a side wedge, any curvature that may exist below the wedges may be seen. Consequently, should the rigging be set up with the wedges in, or with them altogether withdrawn, the side lines will afford the means of detecting any bending in the mast, from the crushing tendency of the combined strains upon the stays and shrouds, and of deciding when these ropes should be relaxed.

iii. The middle lines used in conjunction with straight-edged battens present an easy and a safe way of seeing that the mast when being stayed is not pulled more than slightly out of the position it is permanently to have.

iv. Firstly, as to the correct athwartship position. If a batten of about 7 or 8 feet long be placed upright on the middle line of the deck, considerably abaft the mast, and its edge can be made to coincide by eye with the middle line on the aft part of the mast, the mast will be upright by the shrouds; or, if the edge and the middle line do not agree, the divergence will show to which side, and by how much, the mast inclines.

v. Secondly, as to the rake. If a batten standing on the deck, with a rake equal to that which the mast is to have to the deck, be used with the side middle line, and its edge and the middle line coincide, the rake of the mast must be correct; or, if they do not coincide, the direction and extent of their disagreement will show what the mast is out of place in a fore and aft direction.

vi. The rake of the mast has reference to the keel; but as the deck and the keel are not parallel, the angle between their planes must be considered, when determining the angle the batten shall have to the deck, in order that it may have the assigned angle to the keel. This correction may be readily made, and the batten be set at the found angle in a firm base or foot parallel to the deck.

vii. The lower masts are to be placed with such rake as may be shown in the drawings of the Ship's original construction, or as may have been subsequently decided as preferable, according to records in the Dock-yard; and in the event of experience rendering it advisable to alter the rake of the masts, every particular relative to the change is to be noted in the log-book, and reported in the sailing qualities.


Whenever there shall be a necessity for heeling the Ship to get at leaks, or to repair the copper sheathing, the Captain is to be present himself to see that every possible precaution is taken to prevent its being attended with any accident; he is to direct the Carpenter to see that all the pumps are in good order, and to appoint careful men to observe the state of the well, who are to report to the Officers immediately on their discovering any material increase of water. During the time the Ship is on the heel, the Officers and men are to be in readiness to right her on the shortest notice if the shifting of the tide, a leak, or a gust of wind, should suddenly make it necessary. In all two-decked or three-decked Ships, the lower dock ports of the side to which the Ship is heeled are to be barred in, and the scuppers plugged,


Immediately on arriving in port, the Captain is to submit to the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer present, lists of the defects (if any) of the Ship under his command, in the form given in the Appendix; but he is not to sign or forward such lists until he shall have taken every means to satisfy himself as to the correctness of the representations they contain. No proposed alterations or additions are to be inserted in the lists of defects, as on such points separate and special applications must be made.


The Captain is to cause the Artificers of the Ship he commands to repair all such defects as may be within their means, in order that, on arriving in port, as little assistance as possible may be required from the Dock-yard. Sails, boats, &c., are not to be sent to a Dock-yard for repair, if it be possible to repair them on board, on the necessary stores being supplied for the purpose.


Sharp iron scrapers arc not to be used to the decks of Her Majesty's Ships, except after caulking, and then only with great care so as to avoid any injury being done to the decks.


On a Ship going into port to refit, the Captain is to order a preliminary survey to be held on board upon her sails, rigging, and stores, and such only as are condemnable, and not fit for conversion, are to be landed for further survey; lists of the same are to be prepared for the surveying Officers of the Dock-yard. The Captain is to arrange so that only one survey may take place, and one return of stores be made, during the Ship's stay in port, except a return of the articles broken and worn during the time of fitting or refitting, an account of which is to be prepared a few days before the Ship sails, that others in lieu may be obtained.


Officers in command of iron ships are to take every opportunity of examining the conditions of the bottoms of such ships, and to be very careful that the plates are cleaned and coated with preserving composition as often as may be necessary, or as occasions shall offer for so doing; and they are to see that no injury be done by corrosion to the rivets or other parts, - that no copper articles, or copper filings be allowed to rest on the bottom in immediate contact with the iron, - and that every part be kept clean and preserved by coating with preserving composition, or by such other means as may from time to time be ordered.


If it should be necessary, in the fitting or refitting of a Ship, that she should be taken alongside of, or that her crew should be removed to, a receiving Ship, or Hulk, the Captain is to give directions that no damage be done to any part of such Hulk; and that she be kept, during the continuance of the crew on board, as dry, well ventilated, clean, and comfortable as circumstances will admit; and he is to see that the same discipline be maintained amongst, and the same order and decorum observed by, the Officers and Men, as would be the case were they in their proper Ship.


The application for a Hulk, when one is required, is to be made by the Captain, with the concurrence of the Commander-in-chief, to the Superintendent of the Dock-yard; before being taken possession of, she is to be inspected throughout by a Lieutenant of the Ship to which she is appropriated, (in conjunction with a Lieutenant of the Reserve) and her condition is to be reported to the Captain, who will be responsible for her while occupied. On going on board, the Captain is to appropriate the cabins and mess-places to the several Officers and others, as they are marked, in order that no dispute may arise as to their occupancy. The Warrant Officers belonging to a Hulk are employed to look after her condition, consequently they are not to be required to perform any of the Ship's duties, neither are they to be disturbed in their established accommodations; but they are to conform to the discipline of the Ship.


The Captain of a Ship whose crew occupy a Hulk, is to make a return, every Monday morning, to the Captain of the Reserve, for the information of the Superintendent of the Dock-yard, of all glass broken and damage done during the week, stating whether by accident or negligence; if by negligence, the name and rank of the individual in fault, together with full particulars of the circumstances, are to be noted in the return, that it may be determined whether the sum necessary for making good the breakage or damage be fairly chargeable against his wages.


Before a Hulk is delivered up to the Reserve, she is to be thoroughly cleaned; and, within twenty-four hours after the crew have been removed, the Lieutenant who first inspected her, (or, if he be absent, another Lieutenant) is, in company with a Lieutenant of the Reserve, to inspect her throughout, and having ascertained that she is in as clean and perfect a state as when first occupied, he is to acquaint his Captain thereof, and the Captain having assured himself that such is the case, is to report the same, in writing, to the Commander-in-chief.

The pump-well of a Hulk is to be dried every morning; and the water-tanks, to be filled before the crew finally leave her. On no account is a forge to be worked on board a Hulk.


Dock-yard and other Lighters are on no account to be diverted from the fulfilment of the orders under which the Masters thereof may be acting from the departments to which they belong; when sent with, or for, Provisions or Stores of any description, every facility is to be given for getting them alongside the Ship, and they are to be cleared or loaded as soon as possible. A certificate is to be granted by the commanding Officer, to the Master of the Lighter, stating for what period she was detained alongside. If any impediment shall occur to the prompt clearing or loading of a Lighter, the Captain of the Ship to which she is sent, is, without delay, to report the circumstance to the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer present, by signal or otherwise as may be most convenient; and should it be impracticable to take on board Stores or Provisions on the day previously named for that purpose, the Captain is to give timely notice to the proper department, so as to prevent any delay or inconvenience to the public service which must occur when lighters are laden with articles not required to be transshipped immediately.


All vessels arriving alongside with stores or provisions, are to be cleared as expeditiously as possible, and, sent away; and, in the event of any private vessels being unavoidably detained beyond the time specified in their contracts or agreements, the Captain is to grant the Masters of them a certificate, stating the time of their detention, and very fully detailing the occasion thereof, to the end that the public may not be subjected to any unreasonable or unnecessary charge for demurrage.


The Captain is not to take from any Vessel, Lighter, or Boat, any stores, provisions, or water belonging to or intended for another Ship, unless an extraordinary circumstance shall make it absolutely necessary, of which he is immediately to inform the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer present, the Officer of the department by whom such provisions, water, or stores were sent, and, if circumstances will admit of it, the Captain of the Ship to which they were going.


Detached working parties are, whenever it may be practicable, to be placed in charge of a Lieutenant, Master, Sub-Lieutenant, or Second-Master, and to have a proportion of Subordinate and Petty Officers attached to them: when Marines form a portion of the party, a non-commissioned Officer is, if possible, to accompany them. The Officer in charge of a working party is on no account to leave it to follow his private affairs, nor is he to allow any person under his orders to do so; he is to conform to the regulations of the Dock-yard or other establishment in which he may be employed; and the Captain is to arrange for the men coming on board to their dinners at the usual time, observing that no men, except in cases of emergency, are to be absent from the Ship during the meal hours. Working parties for the shore are, on all ordinary occasions, to have their breakfasts before being sent away.


When a Ship is docked or undecked, or goes into, or comes out of basin, the Captain is to report the same verbally to his Commander-in-chief, and the circumstance is to be noted in the Ship's daily report. When a Ship is ready to be docked (unless ordered to be docked all standing, in which case the magazine only is to be cleared out) her Magazines and Store-rooms, and every other part of her, are to be examined, to see that she is perfectly clear and clean, previous to being reported ready for the inspection of the Dock-yard Officers.


The Captain is to send to the Superintendent a list containing the name of every Officer, Artificer, or other person belonging to the Dock-yard, who may have been victualled on board the Ship under his command, specifying their several entries and discharges that the Superintendent may give orders for the proper deductions to be made from the wages of such of them as may have been thus victualled.


It being the particular duty of the Master-Attendant to prevent the moorings in harbour from suffering any damage, the Captain is to give orders that the yards and topmasts be struck, and every other precaution taken which may be thought necessary by that Officer, on obtaining permission by signal, or otherwise, from the Admiral or senior Officer.

No moorings of any description are to be laid down at a Queen's Port without the permission of the Dock-yard authorities.


The Captain is to allow every Officer to occupy the proper cabin allotted to his rank in the Ship.


If it should be necessary to careen a Ship in any port where there is no Naval Yard belonging to Her Majesty, the Captain (if not under the command of a superior Officer from whom he may receive orders) is himself to direct it to be done with all the expedition and economy possible. He is not, however, except in extreme cases, to employ other men than those of the Ship he commands, or of any other of Her Majesty's Ships present. When men belonging to other Ships are thus employed, the Captain is to direct the Paymaster to cause two lists of such men to be made out in the form given in that Officer's Instructions; and they are to be paid, in accordance with the rates specified in Article 1, at page 218, on the completion of the work, by their respective Paymasters, in the presence of the Captain, Commander, (or senior Lieutenant where no Commander is borne), and Master of the Ship to which they belong. Copies of the pay-lists are to be transmitted forthwith, by the Captain, to the Secretary of the Admiralty, with a letter, explaining the circumstances under which it was necessary in careen the Ship, and duplicate copies are to be forwarded to the Commander-in-chief with a similar explanation.


If it should be found absolutely necessary to hire other men than those belonging to Her Majesty's Service to assist in careening or repairing a Ship, the Captain is to be careful to engage such only as shall be well qualified to perform the duty in which they are to be employed; he is to pay them such wages only as are usually paid in the place where he hires them, and he is to be careful to discharge them immediately their assistance is no longer required. The names of men so hired, and the qualities in which they are engaged, are to be entered in the Ship's books on a separate supernumerary list, but they are not to be victualled except when it cannot be avoided: they are to be mustered every day, and those who are absent are to be checked of their pay as well as provisions; and the Captain is to direct the Officers to report to him such as are idle or negligent, that he may cause proper deductions on account thereof to be made from their pay.

Separate pay-lists are to be made out for the hired men, on the form referred to in the preceding Article, and, when payments shall have been made thereon, the lists are to be disposed of in the manner therein prescribed; but it is to be observed, that, in addition to the particulars called for when the said lists apply to men not belonging to the service, it is to be certified by two respectable Merchants residing at the place where the men are engaged, that the rates of wages are those usually paid for the services performed by them respectively, which certificate is also to state the rate of exchange for bills on the British Government at seven days' sight. It is further to be stated on the lists, whether the hired men were victualled or not victualled at the expense of the Crown.


The Captain is not, except when there shall be an absolute necessity for so doing, (the particulars of which are to be reported, through his Commander-in-chief, to the Secretary of the Admiralty) to hire any vessels or boats, or wharves or warehouses for careening a Ship, or receiving her stores or provisions, or for any other purpose: and when he has occasion to hire them, he is to be very careful to keep them no longer than the exigencies of tho moment may require. When he discharges them, he is to cause triplicate accounts to be made out, in the form given in the Paymaster's Instructions, containing the names of the vessels or boats and their Masters, their tonnage, the number of their crews, the time they were employed, the rate at which they were hired, and the amount of the hire of each, and the total of the whole, he is also to cause triplicate accounts to be made out in similar form of the wharves, warehouses, stages, and whatever else he may have found it necessary to hire, specifying the rate at which each was hired, the time it was kept, and the sum paid for the hire of it; on all which accounts the several certificates, as inserted in the form, are to be duly filled up and signed. The amount due to the person or persons from whom the hire was obtained is to be paid to him or them by the Paymaster of the Ship under the direction of the Captain, and the vouchers for the same are to be disposed of in the manner pointed out in the foregoing Articles for the disposal of the pay lists of extra men working on board.


If it should be necessary to careen a Ship in the port of any Foreign Power, where there is an Arsenal, the Captain is to apply to the Governor, or Chief Officer of the place, for permission to do it at the Arsenal; and he is to request such assistance as circumstances may require. He is to give the fullest and most circumstantial certificate of the assistance he receives; and receipts for the stores, with which the Ship may be supplied, shall be given by the Officer to whom they are issued, certified by the Captain and the Officer next in command.


A general account of the expenses incurred in the careening or repairing of a Ship at any other than a Queen's Port, whether for the hire of Men, Vessels, or Warehouses, or for the supply or expenditure of stores, purchased or furnished from the Arsenal of a Foreign Power, is to be prepared with great care, and certified by the Captain and the Officers under whose superintendence the repairs, &c., have been performed. This account is to be transmitted by the Captain, through his Commander-in-chief, to the Secretary of the Admiralty, by the earliest safe opportunity, in order that the exact amount of the expenses of careening or repairing at any particular port may readily be ascertained; care being taken that all stores purchased or supplied on such occasions be delivered into the charge of the proper Officer, who is to account for them in the usual manner.


If one of Her Majesty's Ships be wrecked, or otherwise lost or destroyed, the Captain is to use every exertion to preserve the lives of the Crew; and when they, or as many of them as possible, are saved, he is to use his utmost endeavours to save the stores, provisions, and furniture of the Ship. He is to give his particular attention to the saving of all Books and Papers relating to the Ship's Accounts, that he may be enabled, immediately after the Court-Martial inquiring into the loss of the Ship shall have taken place, to cause the necessary books to be made out for transmission to the Admiralty. In any instance where a commanding Officer shall find himself unable to comply with these directions, he is to state, immediately, to the Admiralty the cause of his inability, in order that the Board may, if they judge proper, direct the books to be made out from the last accounts received in Office. He is himself to take especial care to preserve all Secret Orders, Signals, and Instructions, or, if necessary, to destroy them, to prevent their falling into improper hands. If he should havc information of any of Her Majesty's Ships being near, he is immediately to inform them of his situation, that they may proceed to his assistance.

He is to dispose of the Crew in the manner most comfortable for them, and most economical for the public, that circumstances will admit, of. He is to place sufficient guards over the stores and provisions to prevent their being embezzled; and is to be careful that the wine and spirits are so disposed of that they cannot be got at without his permission. He is to keep the Crew together, and to be very particular in preserving regular and perfect discipline among them, carefully preventing their committing any irregularities or giving offence to the inhabitants of the country they are in. If he have no hope of being assisted by any of Her Majesty's Ships, he is, as soon as he shall have saved all that can be got from the wreck, to hire, on the most reasonable terms, such vessels as shall be necessary to convey him and all the Officers and Crew and the stores and provisions to the nearest port, where he may expect to find some of Her Majesty's Ships, or to a port in England, according to circumstances; observing that, without very sufficient reasons to the contrary, he is always to prefer that course which will be attended with the least expense to the public. If a sufficient quantity of provisions should not be saved, he is to authorize the Paymaster to purchase whatever may be required for victualling the Ship's Company; and if the men should be in want of clothes, he is to cause whatever may be absolutely requisite for their comfort, but nothing more, to be purchased, of which provisions and clothing the paymaster is to keep proper accounts, charging against the wages of every man the amount of the articles of clothing with which he may be supplied. If the Ship should be wrecked on the coast of a Foreign Power in amity with Her Majesty, he is to apply to the Governor, or Chief Officer of the place, for such assistance as he may stand in need of; and he is to be particularly attentive in observing and conforming to all the Laws and Regulations of the Country, as long as he shall continue in it.


Whenever guns, sails, or other valuable and important stores are lost from any one of Her Majesty's Ships, or any of the principal yards or spars are sprung or materially injured, or whenever any accident of a serious nature shall occur to the Ship's hull, machinery or boilers, the Captain is, by the earliest opportunity, to report the particulars thereof to his Commander-in-chief for the information of the Admiralty.


The Captain is to take care that all the boats belonging to the Ship are kept ready for immediate service at the shortest notice, and that the boat's gear be kept constantly rove. The men are to be properly stationed, and are to be exercised occasionally in getting the boats out and in manning and arming them, &c. Ships having paddle-box boats are to weigh them from off the paddle-wheels, after general quarters, every week.

Officers in command of small vessels fitted with quarter or stern boats, are to cause such boats to be got in-board on the approach of bad weather, in the Channel or elsewhere, at sea.


Ships ordered to Foreign Stations are to take on board five months' provisions of all other species than biscuit, and of biscuit (except for the Mediterranean) as much as they can stow. Ships for the Mediterranean Station are to take in only three months' biscuit. Ships that cannot receive five months' provisions are to take as much as they can stow.

Ships for Home or Channel service are to take on board three months' provisions, unless otherwise ordered: but if intended for any service likely tn keep them absent from a Victualling Depot for a longer period, they are to take on board as much as they can stow.


If a cable shall be cut, or slipped, (which is never to be done while there is a possibility of weighing the anchor, except in a case of emergency for the purpose of chasing an enemy, or when necessary for the safety of the Ship) or if a cable be parted, the Captain is to use his utmost endeavour to recover the same, with the anchor, immediately the weather and other circumstances will admit of the attempt; if the Ship shall put to sea, the senior Officer left at the anchorage is, if possible, to recover them.

If an anchor or a cable shall be left in any Harbour or Roadstead, and the Captain of the Ship to which they belonged shall have no opportunity of recovering them, or, if the attempt shall have been made and proved unsuccessful, he is to report it to the Secretary of the Admiralty, through his Commander-in-Chief if he be serving under the orders of one, and also to the Superintendent of the nearest Dock-yard, detailing all the circumstances under which the loss occurred, and transmitting with the said report a plan of the Harbour or Roadstead, on which is to be marked, as near as possible, the precise spot where the articles are supposed to lie, with any cross marks that may have been taken, or the bearings and distances of the nearest points of land from the spot.

Should there be any probability of recovering the anchor and cable by any further attempt beyond what may have been made by the Captain of the Ship from whence they were lost, the said Captain is, in addition to his report to the Admiralty, if there be an opportunity of so doing, to leave such written particulars with the Consul, or other chief British authority at the place, as may be necessary for the information of the Captain of any of Her Majesty's Ships calling there, who is, if consistent with the service on which he may be employed, required to do his utmost to recover the lost articles.


The Capstans of Her Majesty's Ships are to be turned round and properly oiled once a week; and when the bars are shipped they are, to prevent accidents, to be invariably well secured and swifted.


As cleanliness, dryness, and pure air are essentially necessary to health, the Captain is to use his utmost endeavours to obtain those comforts for the Ship's Company in as great a degree as possible. The Ship is always to be pumped dry, the pump-well is frequently to be swabbed, and a fire let down to dry it (proper precautions lining taken to guard against accidents). He is to take care that there is a free passage fore and aft for the water; and those places where, from the trim of the Ship, there may be a lodgment, are to be baled out and dried: in Steam Ships especially he is to take care that every possible means be taken to insure that the air may circulate freely, and that room be left for a man to get down upon the kelson to clear the limbers of all offensive matter that may accumulate. He is, as frequently as he may deem requisite, to examine, himself, the state of the holds, and the lower parts of the Ship, in company with the Surgeon, and if he should not find them perfectly clean and free from obnoxious smells, he is to cause a thorough examination to be made with a view to detect and remove whatever may be likely to engender disease.

He is to cause an Officer to inspect the Holds, and all parts of the Ship below, every morning, and to report to him whether they are in a clean and well-ventilated state or otherwise.

The holds are to be whitewashed every six months, or oftener if necessary.

In line-of-battle Ships and Frigates, if the weather should prevent the ports from being opened for a considerable time, fires are to be made in the stoves, and by means of them and of windsails the lower decks are to be kept as dry and as well ventilated as possible.

He is to see that the men are properly clothed, in the established uniform, according to the nature of the climate in which they may be serving, - that their hair is properly cut, and clean, - and that they are, generally, cleanly in their persons and dress. They are never to be suffered to remain in wet clothes, or sleep in wet bedding, when it can possibly be avoided.

The Ship's Company's bedding is to be aired once a-week when the weather will permit, each article being exposed separately to the air by being tied up in the rigging or upon girt-lines. Twice in every year their blankets are to be washed with soap, in warm water; and once a-year the bed-tickings are to be washed, and the hair beaten and teazed before it is replaced.


The Captain is to divide all the Ship's Company, exclusive of the Marines, into divisions, and appoint a Lieutenant to command each division, who is to have under his orders as many Suh-Lieutenants and Midshipmen as the number on board will admit. He is to take especial care that the Officer in charge of a division conforms in every particular with the directions contained in Article 21, at page 356, of these Instructions.


The Captain is to give directions for the inspection of the men's clothing and bedding, by the respective Officers of division, before and after each issue of clothing materials, or oftener if necessary, - taking care that the inspections are so conducted as not to be unnecessarily irksome to the men. The general issue of clothing is to take place every month, and the Officers of divisions are to prepare lists, specifying the quantities required by each man, - entering the men's names thereon, consecutively, as they stand on the Ship's books. The lists are to be delivered to the Captain, for the Paymaster, in time for the latter Officer to satisfy himself that the value of the articles required by each man will not, even in the case of a new entry, bring the individual in debt to the Crown more than the amount of two months' pay; and subsequent issues are to be so regulated as to leave a balance in the man's favour.

The issue of clothing to Boys is to be so regulated that they may generally be kept clear of debt; and the charges against them are not to exceed the amount which will be covered by their pay at the expiration of eight months from the time of their joining the service.

Large issues of clothing to any one man, whereby his wages are dissipated and many irregularities arise, are not to be sanctioned by the Captain; but he is to assure himself, before approving the divisional Officer's list, that the articles demanded are really necessary for the man's use and comfort, - remembering that he will be held liable to reimburse the Crown should any one under his command, on quitting the service, be in debt beyond the extent authorized by the foregoing Instructions and those relating to pay.


The Officers, Petty Officers, and Seamen of the Fleet are not to wear moustaches or beards. Moustaches, but not beards, may be worn by the Officers and Men belonging to the Royal Marine Corps.


The Officers in command of Her Majesty's Ships are to pay due regard to any requisition which may be made to them, in the absence of the Commander-in-chief, from the Governors and other British Authorities within the limits of the Station on which they are employed, for their co-operation and assistance on any necessary service, whether it be for the protection of Her Majesty's Possessions, or for the benefit of the trade of Her Majesty's subjects, or otherwise, so long as the same does not interfere with or infringe any instructions they may previously have received from a superior Naval authority, it being of course a general obligation on all Her Majesty's Civil and Military Officers to afford mutual aid and assistance to each other in all cases affecting the welfare of the Queen's Service. In any very urgent case, where requisitions made by Governors or other authorized persons may interfere with the instructions under which the Officers in command of Her Majesty's Ships are acting, the commanding Naval Officer on the spot must, in the absence of the Commander-in-chief on a part of his Station too distant to admit of reference being made to him in the first instance, very maturely weigh and consider the relative importance and urgency of any such required service, as compared with that directed by his instructions, and he must then act, with regard to complying with or refusing such requisition, as his judgment shall point out to be right, - always recollecting the very heavy responsibility he will incur by an infringement of the orders of the Superior Naval authorities, unless the urgency of the case shall most fully warrant it.


The Captains of such of Her Majesty's Ships as visit Foreign ports or places are to take especial care to avoid all possible cause of offence or dissatisfaction to the official authorities or to the inhabitants; and they are to cause all those under their orders to show due deference to the established rights, ceremonies, customs, and regulations of such places, and to conciliate, as far as possible, the good will and respect of the inhabitants.


The Captain is to keep the Ship he commands, when at sea, properly prepared for battle, as well in a time of profound peace as during a period of the most active warfare. He is, every evening, before it is dark, to give directions for the quarters to be cleared, and every necessary arrangement to be made preparatory for battle, so that there may be no risk of being surprised, by suddenly meeting, in the night, an enemy better prepared for action than himself. When at anchor in any roadstead or harbour, he is to be constantly prepared to repel any attempts of an enemy to board the Ship, or to destroy her by sending Steam-Vessels or Fire-Vessels against her; but he is to be more particularly prepared to repel such attacks during the night.


In time of peace, he is not to approach a Ship of War of any Foreign Power, without having his Ship so far prepared for battle that, in case of aggression, he may be immediately ready to defend himself; but he is to do this in such a manner as not to give reasonable cause of offence to such Foreign Ship, or to raise any suspicion of his intending to act hostilely against her, by removing the tompions from the guns, or by exhibiting any other outward mark of preparation.


The Guns of her Majesty's Ships employed during peace are, unless under circumstances that cannot be prevented, to be always on board, and as much prepared for immediate action as they would be during war; and an abundant supply of every article necessary for action is at all times to be at hand.


It being of the utmost importance that one uniform system of gunnery in all its branches, and of drill in the use of small arms, cutlasses, &c, should be taught and observed throughout Her Majesty's Navy, the respective Flag Officers, Captains, and Officers in command, are not to permit the slightest, deviation from the instructions and rules laid down in the books of "Gunnery Exercise," and "Small Arm Drills," issued under the authority of the Admiralty, copies ofwhich will be supplied to each Ship on fitting out; but any alterations that may appear to be necessary are to he communicated to the Secretary of the Admiralty for their Lordships' consideration.


The Captain is, as early as possible, to make arrangements for quartering all the Officers and Men of the Ship, according to the instructions with which he will be furnished for the exercise and service of great guns; and that everyone may know his station in time of action, he is to cause a general table containing the names of the Officers and Men, and specifying their respective quarters, to be hung up in some public place in the Ship.


The Captain is to take every favorable opportunity of exercising the Ship's Company in the great gun, small arm, and cutlass drills, and also to land the small arm companies and field-piece crews for that purpose, so that they may be expert in time of action; and he is to see that the Officers and Instructors attend carefully to the drilling of the subordinate officers, men, and boys, in all the details of the established exercises.


The permission of the senior Officcr present is always to be obtained for any practice with powder; and when the Ship carries a Flag or Broad Pendant such permission is not to be asked for, nor is any general exercise to take place without the consent of the Flag Officer or Commodore on board.


The Captain may direct the Gunner to supply, quarterly, such proportions of powder, shot, shell, &c., for exercise, as he may deem necessary, not however exceeding the quantities specified in the table given in the Appendix.


The Captain is to exercise the crew, by night, at general quarters, once every three months; and all Ships newly commissioned are to fire, at night quarters, within a month after first leaving port.


Whenever practice is made against an object on shore the concurrence of the resident authorities is to be previously obtained, if there are any inhabitants in the neighbourhood; and the Captains of Her Majesty's Ships are, in foreign ports and places, before exercising with powder, to ascertain that, by so doing, they would not infringe any local regulations, nor afford any cause of complaint to the authorities.


The powder, shot, shell, and small arm cartridges are not to be fired away at one or two exercises; but the allowance of each is to be divided into such proportions, and so used at different times, as to keep the men in constant practice; and, whenever it is practicable, all Ships are to fire at least half the ammunition allowed for exercise, at sea, working round a target.


The quantity of powder, shot, shell, and small arm cartridges, actually expended at each day's exercise, is to be inserted the same day in the Log-book, and the entry is to be signed by the Commander, or (where there is no Commander) by the senior Lieutenant and Gunner in proof of its correctness; and any expenditure for exercise exceeding the quantities authorized by these instructions will be charged against the Captain, unless, from the nature of the service on which the Ship may be employed, the Admiralty, a Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer should be induced to order more frequent exercises, involving a larger expenditure, in which case a copy of such order is to accompany the Gunner's expense book for passing his account.


The Captain is not to suffer the quantity of powder and shot on board, with a proportion of shells, to be decreased by exercise or salutes, below 30 rounds for each broadside gun, and 150 rounds for each revolving gun in the Ship, independent of what may probably be required for Signal purposes.


As little powder as possible is to be kept on deck or out of the magazine, and when there is a necessity for any to be on deck, care is to be taken that it be properly secured from accident. Rockets and other combustible materials are to be secured in some place remote from the probability of ignition.


The Captain of any one of Her Majesty's Ships fitting out, is, on no account whatever, to omit taking on board the whole of the shot, shell, and charges allowed for each gun in the Ship, as well as the spare powder and all other descriptions of ammunition, and of Gunner's stores, according to the establishment which will be furnished for his information from the Military Store Department; and he is also enjoined to avail himself of every proper opportunity of replenishing such shot, shell, ammunition, and stores, so that his Ship may be ready for war service at any moment.


The Officers of the Dock-yard where a Ship is ordered to be put in commission, are to report to the War Department the number of cases or barrels that can be stowed in her magazines, and a duplicate of such report is to be furnished, under the direction of the Superintendent, to the Captain of the Ship. If it be found afterwards that the full number reported cannot possibly be taken, or if the magazine will hold more than the Dock-yard Officers reported, or than is allowed by the establishment, the Captain is forthwith to communicate the particulars to the Admiralty, through his Commander-in-chief, with any suggestions he may have to offer thereon.


The Captains ot Her Majesty's Ships are to be careful that, in all their communications relative to naval guns they are correctly specified by weight, length, calibre, inventor'n name, &c.


When guns or carriages are shipped in the first instance, or landed for examination or repair, they will be painted with two coats of paint in the Military Store Department; the third coat is to be given on board from the Ship's store, for which purpose paint is furnished. A coating of coal-tar is never to be applied to gun carriages while on board Her Majesty's Ships, instead of paint, such substance being detrimental to the carriages.


The metal covers for hammers and sights are to be painted, and never to be polished bright. The elevating screws are to be cleaned with oiled rags only.


The respective Officers of the War Department, in charge at those stations where there are laboratory establishments, will give proper attention to such applications as may be made to them, by the commanding Officers of any of Her Majesty's Ships, in respect to the examination and airing of powder; but it is to be observed that the stowage of powder in flannel cartridges, and packing them in air-tight metal-lined cases, has not only made the process of examination and airing much less needful than before, but may render an officious and frequent opening of the cases a great evil, cansing the defect it is proposed to remedy: it is for this reason thut the cases should not be opened, except for service, unless there may be good grounds for believing that the powder has been injured.

Where the means of the War Department may not be sufficient, and application is made to the Captain for persons to assist in the examination and airing of powder, the Gunner, and others so employed, will be allowed extra pay at such rates as may from time to time be established by the War Department, to be paid to them, by the Military Storekeeper, on vouchers signed by the Captain and Gunner of the Ship.


Timely notice, in writing, is to be given by the Captain, to the Military Storekeeper, on every occasion on which the Ship is ready to receive or land her guns, shell, shot, powder, or other heavy stores.


On receiving on board the Ordnance and Ordnance Stores the Captain is to cause the guns and their carriages, the muskets, cutlasses, and other weapons, to be carefully examined, and is to inform the Military Storekeeper of such as shall appear to be defective, or not fit for service, that they may be exchanged; but if there shall appear any manifest indication of neglect, he is to report it to the senior Officer present, who, if necessary, will represent it to the Admiralty. He is to be careful that the trucks of all the gun-carriages be frequently taken off, and the axle-trees thoroughly cleaned and dried, but not scraped.


At Stations where there is an Inspector of Warlike Stores, all new guns are to be examined by him after every 100 rounds with projectiles; guns that have been re-vented are to be examined after every 50 rounds. Officers commanding Her Majesty's Ships are, when the exigencies of the Service permit, to call upon the Military Storekeepers to make requisitions on the Inspectors of Warlike Stores to perform this duty. At Stations where there are no Military Storekeepers, the necessary requisitions are to be made on the Officer Commanding the Royal Artillery in the District, who will depute a competent person for the purpose; and where there are neither Military Storekeepers nor Royal Artillery Officers, the examination must be made by a Gunnery Officer and a Gunner. Returns of such examinations are to be rendered to the 31st of December of each year, addressed to the Secretary of State for War, and marked, "For the Inspectors of Artillery, War Office, London." Commanding Officers are to take care that the Gunners of their respective Ships keep an accurate register in the Form supplied by the War Department, of the number of rounds fired from each gun, specifying whether with or without shot; and on any gun being returned into store, one of the said forms properly filled in with the number of rounds fired from the gun previous to its being supplied to, and during the time of its being on board the Ship, must be delivered to the Military Store Officer into his charge [when] the gun is returned.

The form of the annual return herein referred to, and instructions relative to the inspection of guns, will be found in the book of Gunnery Exercise.


Great care is to be taken in stowing and moving Dell's metallic powder cases, and the metal-lined cases, so as to prevent their being damaged, as the commanding Officer will be held responsible for any injury done to them.


The attention of all Officers in command is called to the necessity of exercising the magazine men on board Her Majesty's Ships, which is to be done occasionally with powder, to the extent of the number of leather cartridge cases supplied, from which, with due caution, no danger can possibly arise.


The Captain is to report to the Secretary of the Admiralty, through his Commander-in-Chief, any accident that may happen with great guns, small arms, or shells, stating the charge of powder used, and also the supposed cause of the accident. The particulars of such accidents are also to be inserted in the half-yearly Gunnery Returns.


In exercising copper-vented guns, without tubes, the hammer of the direct action lock is never to be struck on the vent without the point of the hammer being covered with a leather cap, or a shield placed over the vent.


When saluting, the Captain is to take care that all the precautions mentioned in Article 43, at page 375, of these Instructions, be duly observed.


No Ship-of-war, having powder or live shells on board, is to enter the harbours at any of the Home Ports (Woolwich, the Nore, Portsmouth, and Plymouth) without the permission of the Commander-in-chief or senior Offcer present, which is not to be granted except when the Ship is coming in for the purpose of coaling, or some other temporary object not likely to detain her beyond 96 hours; and, to guard against accidents, the magazines of such Ship are not to be opened during her detention in harbour.


Powder and live shells are to be taken on board, or, when coming into harbour, removed from, Her Majesty's Ships, at the following places, unless ordered otherwise under special circumstances; namely-
Long Reach in the Thames; The Nore, or at Blackstakes; Spithead; Plymouth Sound.


On all occasions of receiving or discharging powder or live shells, the smoking of tobacco is prohibited; the fires and lights are to be put out before the powder or shell vessel be suffered to come alongside the Ship, except the light in the light room, and, with the sanction of the senior Officer present (which will only be granted in very urgent cases), the fires in the engine rooms of steamers.


When, from necessity, powder or live shells are being discharged from, or received on board, a steamer with her fires lighted in the engine-room, the vessel conveying or receiving the same is to be placed to windward of the funnel; and, in case of the steamer swinging, the hatches of the vessel are to be put on, and covered with tarpaulins, until she can be removed to a safe and proper position.


On no occasion is a ship with powder or live shells on board to go into a Dock or Basin, or to remain alongside a Dock-yard, Victualling-yard, or Ordnance Wharf.


Her Majesty's Ships (steamers especially) are not to approach too near to powder Magazines, or to vessels laden with powder, the latter of which are distinguished by a red flag at the mast-head.


The following precautions are to be observed in the removal of shells from Her Majesty's Ships:-

i. Both live and dead shells, when removed from Ships, are to be placed on board the Lighters with great care and attention, and cautiously handled in stowing them in the holds of the Vessels by the party sent on board for that purpose. Such party is to be superintended by an Officer to control the men.

ii. Moorsom's shells are not to be mixed up amongst the other shells, but carefully put on board the Lighter after the other shells are stowed away, so that the seals and bandages on the boxes may not be broken or disturbed.

iii. The Master of the Lighter is to be furnished with a memorandum showing the number and nature of both live aud dead shells put on board, for delivery to the Officers at the Gunwharf.


The Captain is to take every precaution for the security of the Ship against fire, and to establish general regulations for the duties to be performed by the Officers and men, should any fire take place, either during action or at any other time. He is not to allow lights to be used in the orlop, or cable tiers, or store-rooms, except in good lanterns; nor candles to be stuck against the beams or sides in the holds or other parts of the Ship; nor lights to be kept in the Officers' cabins, except at seasonable hours and on proper occasions; nor phosphorus, nor any other substance or liquid susceptible of spontaneous ignition, to be on board in the private possession of any one. He is to direct the Carpenter to be careful that the lead or copper sheathing of the holes through which the funnels pass be kept in perfect repair.

When Dock-yard or other Artificers are employed on board, he is to take care that all the lights in those parts of the Ship in which they may have been used by them are extinguished before they quit their work, and he is to cause an Officer to go round, who is to report to the commanding Officer that this has been done.

He is, moreover, enjoined never, on any account or pretence, to allow spirituous liquors, varnishes, or other inflammable stores of whatsoever kind or description, to be drawn off, or moved from any cask, vessel, or package in which they may be contained, anywhere but on the upper or main deck by daylight; but should any occasion make it essentially necessary to draw off or move spirits, or any inflammable stores, on the upper or main deck by night, he is to take care that such lights as it may be requisite to use be in Davy's Safety Lamps, and kept as far from the spirits or stores as possible; and no other lights, except those in Davy's Lamps, are ever to be used in the holds in which inflammable stores are kept. When a spirit cask is emptied a quantity of salt water is immediately to be poured into it. No lights whatever are to be used in the spirit rooms of Her Majesty's Ships.


The following regulations are to be observed with regard to smoking on board:-

i. The Ship's Company are to be allowed to smoke on the main deck, abaft the galley, and before the main-mast during meal hours, and, after quarters, from 6 o'clock to 8 o'clock P.M. In flush-decked vessels, the men may smoke on the upper deck only, before the main hatchway, on one side.

The Officers are to be allowed to smoke, within the hours prescribed above, on the middle or main deck, between the guns, abaft the mainmast, and before the after hatchway: in flush-decked vessels before the main-mast, on the opposite side to the Ship's Company.

Smoking in the boats of Her Majesty's Ships is prohibited, when on duty or otherwise, unless when such boats are detached for any length of time on service, in which case, smoking may be allowed within hours prescribed above.

All Officers when on shore in uniform, are prohibited from smoking in the public streets.

Officers under 18 years of age, and boys, are not to be allowed to take up tobacco, or to smoke either on shore or afloat.

On the Home Stations, tobacco is to be served out once a month, and abroad every one, two, or three months as the Captain may direct the quantity is not to exceed one pound per month for each person on a home Station, and two pounds per month for each person on a foreign Station, and if not taken up by the individual at one serving, it is not to be issued to him, in addition, at any subsequent serving; nor is it to be supplied to any person who is not in the habit of using it.

The Officers and Crews of Ships detained alongside Dock-yards, Wharfs, or Jetties, may be permitted to smoke on board, at the hours and places sanctioned by the foregoing regulations, but this indulgence is not to extend to those in Ships in the Docks or Basins, without the written sanction of the Superintendent of the Establishment.


To enable the Ship's Steward, Steward's Assistant, and Boy, to give their undivided attention to the special duties required of them, and to ensure the punctual execution of those duties at all times, they are never to be required to assist in the navigation of the Ship, or in any other work unconnected with the special duties of their respective ratings, unless any very urgent necessity should arise rendering it indispensable that they should be diverted for a time from their proper employment; but, like all other persons, they are to have a station and duties assigned to them at Genenal Quarters, and are to be required to attend at their station, and to perform the duties appertaining thereto, whenever the Ship is cleared for action or general exercise at quarters.


To afford the young gentlemen of such of Her Majesty's Ships as may be without Naval Instructors every possible means for acquiring a competent knowledge of the principles and practice of Navigation, the Captains or Officers in command of such Ships are to encourage and afford facilities to the Masters or Second Masters thereof to undertake this important and useful task, and the usual allowance for the instruction of Acting Sub-Lieutenants, Midshipmen, and Naval Cadets is to be paid to the Master or Second Master affording such instruction, on the certificates referred to in Article 9, at page 215.


With a view to improve the Midshipmen, Naval Cadets, and Masters' Assistants in Seamanship and professional knowledge, it is desirable that the following course of instruction should be observed in all Her Majesty's Ships, and diligently pursued, under the inspection of the Captain, during the whole period of the commission.

i. The Midshipmen, Naval Cadets, and Masters' Assistants, should be excused from watch keeping between the hours of 8 A.M., and 4 P.M., as much as the service will allow; but they should be present on all occasions of general exercise, or when rigging, or staying masts, setting-up rigging, getting-up masts and yards, or any anchor work or manoeuvre not commonly performed, takes place.

ii. The forenoon, from 9.30, or from the forenoon inspection, to 11.30, should be employed in studying under the Naval Instructor.

iii. From 11.30 to noon, whether at sea or in harbour, should be employed under the Naval Instructor, in observing the Sun, and acquiring proficiency in the use of nautical instruments.

iv. From 2 to 4 P.M. should be devoted to practical instruction in seamanship, gunnery, and, occasionally, the steam engine (if a steam ship).

A progress book is to be kept in every Ship, viz., by the Naval Instructor, the Gunnery-Lieutenant, and by the Warrant or Petty Officer appointed to superintend the instruction in Seamanship, and this book should form a guide for filling up the half-yearly returns of the proficiency of Midshipmen, Naval Cadets, and Masters' Assistants.

The course of instruction in general practical knowledge respecting a Ship, and in seamanship, is to be arranged as follows:-

First Instruction.

i. To have a knowledge of all the different parts of the hull of a Ship-of-war; to understand the principles on which she is constructed; also the method of constructing masts and yards.

ii. To know the names of all the standing rigging, and the different parts of the sails, and the use of each part.

iii. To make all the knots and hitches used at sea, which are made without unlaying the strands of a rope; and to describe the purposes for which they are generally used.

Second Instruction.

i. To be able to pull an oar; to steer; and manage a boat under any circumstances.
NOTE. - As Ships at sea have not the means of instructing young Officers in the practical management of boats, this part of the instruction should be particularly attended to when the Ship is in harbour.

ii. To be able to describe all the flags used for signals.

iii. To be able to heave the log, box the compass, and mark the leeway; to understand the use of the hand and deep sea leads, and the marks on the lines; and to heave the lead.

Third Instruction.

i. A practical course of knotting, splicing, cutting-out, fitting, placing, and setting-up rigging.

ii. The relative position of the whole of the standing rigging of the bowsprit, masts, yards, &c.

Fourth Instruction.

i. Stowage of holds and provisions.

ii. Position and arrangement of all the stores.

iii. The general internal arrangement of a man-of-war, as relates to berthing, messing, watching, and stationing Men, and the particular duties usually assigned to the several Officers aud Petty Officers with regard to the different parts of the Ship.

Fifth Instruction.

i. Method of reefing, furling, setting, taking-in, shifting, and making-up any sail.

ii. Shifting topsail, and top-gallant yards and masts.

iii. The fitting and lead of all running rigging.

Sixth Instruction.

i. Knowledge of the method of rigging sheers for stepping lower masts or bowsprit, getting in lower yards, slinging and sending up tops, caps, and crosstrees, shifting topmasts and jib-boom.

ii. Stowing and securing boats, booms, and anchors, and the gear used in stowing them.

iii. To understand the use of chain and hemp cables, messengers, nippers, and stoppers; getting on board, shackling or clenching, bending and biting a cable; to know the names of the different parts of an anchor and a capstan.

Seventh Instruction.

i. The methods of steering a ship, the effect of the water upon the rudder, and that produced on the helm by altering the trim of a ship, or by getting stern-way, or by altering the sails. The method of making a jury rudder.

ii. The effect of the wind on the sails in turning a ship. The direction of its pressure upon the masts. How a ship is balanced by the sails, and the general principles of manoeuvring a ship.

iii. Anchoring, weighing, mooring, unmooring, and clearing hawse; keeping a ship clear of her anchor at single anchor; laying out bower, stream or kedge anchors in boats and on rafts.

Midshipmen should, in fine weather, during the daytime be instructed, by the direction of the Captain, under the Officer of the Watch, in manoeuvring the Ship.


Any Petty Officer, Seaman, or Marine who may wish to avail himself of the instructions to be derived from the Seamen's Schoolmaster is to be allowed to do so, and all the Boys of the Ship are to be taught by him. Arrangements are to be made by the commanding Officers of Her Majesty's Ships so as to allow the Men and Boys to attend for the said purpose, as far as may be permitted consistently with the proper discharge of the duties of the Ship.


In any Ship where no Seamen's Schoolmaster is serving, and where there are not, on an average, fewer than ten men and boys to be instructed, the Captain, or Officer in command, may direct any competent person who may be willing to perform the duties, to undertake them, and for so doing such person shall be entitled to receive pay according to the rate specified in Article 56, at page 212, of these Instructions, - the certificate therein referred to being inserted in the Ship's Pay Book.


The Captain is to be particularly careful that all the returns he makes of the condition of the Ship, the quantity of stores, provisions and water, and of the number of Officers and Men on board, are perfectly correct; that the number of Officers and Men reported to be in each class is the number actually borne and serving iu that class; and that every Supernumerary is included in the report. If Supernumeraries of any description, except those belonging to other Ships, be borne without special authority, or be retained on the books unnecessarily, he will be charged with the amount of their wages and provisions.


The Captain, as soon as possible after commissioning a Ship, or on arrival from sea, is to send an Officer to the Commander-in-chief's Flag Ship to copy the written orders of the Port or Station; and the standing and printed order books of ships falling in with each other, are, whenever practicable, to be compared, and corrected to the latest date.


By occasional and proper opportunities the Captain is to send particular accounts of his proceedings, accompanied by a return of the state and condition of the Ship, to his Commander-in-chief or other superior Officer under whose orders he may be placed, or, if he be not under the orders of one, to the Secretary of the Admiralty; reporting also, all circumstances that may have occurred, and all intelligence he may have obtained worthy of notice.


If a Captain shall obtain intelligence which he shall think it necessary to send to his Commander-in-chief, or to any Ambassador or other Minister, or to any Squadron or Ship, or to any Army or Fortress of Her Majesty or her Allies, and he may not have with him any of Her Majesty's Ships by which he can send it; he is to hire for that purpose, on the most reasonable terms possible, such fit private Vessel as he may be able to procure, with the Owner of which, or with the Master if the Owner be not present, he is to make an agreement, in writing, in which is to be particularly specified all the service the Vessel is to perform, and the rate at which she is to be paid for performing it; but Captains are charged not to hire Vessels for this purpose, unless the intelligence they obtain be of such urgent consequence as to justify the expense that would be incurred by sending it; and if it be of sufficient consequence to justify its being sent, they are to be extremely cautious to whom they intrust the conveyance of it.


The Captain is to take care that no British Merchant Seamen are received on board while serving on a Foreign Station, as prisoners under charges preferred against them, unless the witnesses necessary to substantiate the charges accompany them, or some equally certain means are adopted for insuring their appearance, on the arrival of the prisoners at the place where they will be handed over to the civil power.


Officers in command are to bear in mind that, by the 52nd section of the Act 16th and 17th Victoria, chapter 107, Her Majesty's Ships are, for the protection of the Customs, liable to such searches as Merchant Vessels are liable to, and that the Officers of the Customs may freely enter and go on board such Ships in the performance of their respective duties; and further that the Ships of War belonging to Her Majesty are subject to such Customs regulations as may be issued by the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, from time to time, in respect of them. Commanding Officers are enjoined to observe also the provisions of the 237th section of the Act referred to, requiring them to place in security on board the Ship any person or persons, being part of the crew, who shall be liable to detention under any law relating to the Customs, until the detaining Officer shall have obtained a warrant from a Magistrate for bringing such person or persons before him, to be dealt with according to law.


When any one of Her Majesty's Ships, having on board any goods laden in parts beyond the seas, shall arrive at a Port in the United Kingdom, the Officer in command of such Ship, before any part of the goods be taken out of her, or when called upon so to do by any Officer of the Customs, is to deliver an account, in writing, under his hand, to the best of his knowledge, of the quality and quantity of every package or parcel of such goods, and of the marks and numbers thereon, and of the names of the respective shippers and consignees of the same, and he is to make and subscribe a declaration at the foot of the account declaring to the truth thereof; and he is also truly to answer such questions concerning such goods as shall be put to him by the Collector or Comptroller, or their deputies, observing that, on failure thereof, he will be liable, under the 52nd section of the Act referred to in the foregoing Article, to a penalty of one hundred pounds.


If the Captain shall at any time discover an Officer smuggling, or attempting to smuggle, or that any Officer has received on board liquors or other articles for the purpose of smuggling them, he is to acquaint the senior Officer present, for the information of the Admiralty, that such steps may be taken as conduct so injurious to the public, and so disgraceful to an Officer, shall require. And if any person under his command shall be detained for a breach of the Customs laws or regulations, he is to communicate the particulars to the senior Officer present, for the information of the Admiralty.


If Officers of the Customs be sent on board, in consequence of information of there being in the Ship an improper quantity of wine or spirituous liquors, or any other article liable to the payment of duties, the Officer in command of such Ship is to give them every possible assistance in discovering the articles, if they be really on board.


When Officers of the Customs are sent on board they are to be allowed to execute their duty, without suffering any obstruction or ill treatment: and if the duty on which they are sent require their remaining on board more than one day, the Captain is to order them to be borne as supernumeraries for victuals, and to be victualled according to the regulations of the service, at full allowance; and he is to direct a hammock and a bed to be lent to each of them, during their continuance on board, and a berth to be prepared for them, with proper screens, in such situations as may be best calculated to enable them to perform their duty.


The Captain is not to discharge any man or boy from the Ship's books, without the authority of the Admiralty or of his superior Officer, except for one of the following reasons, namely, - death, desertion, preferment into some other ship, unfitness for the service determined by survey, not returning from Hospital or Sick Quarters within the prescribed time, being sent to assist in navigating Merchant Ships, by sentence of Court Martial, - and, temporarily, while undergoing imprisonment under summary committal; in the last-mentioned case the Act under which the individual is committed, the prison to which he is sent, and the term of his sentence, are to be noted on the books; in other cases, the cause of discharge is to be fully mentioned in the books, and in all pay documents appertaining to the person discharged.


No application for the discharge or transfer of an Officer from the Ship to which he belongs, nor for such leave of absence as might render his return improbable, is to be entertained unless the Captain shall certify on the application that he is satisfied with the conduct of such Officer; and in every application for survey on an Officer with a view to his being invalided (as well as for his discharge or transfer), the Captain is to certify that the request is not made for the purpose of removing him from the Ship in consequence of any misconduct on board.


When application is made for the discharge of Officers, men, or boys, or for their exchange from one ship to another, the Captain of the Ship to which they belong, on forwarding such application to the Commander-in-Chief, (and in case of exchanges, the Captain also of the Ship they desire to join,) is to state therein that he has no objection to the request being complied with, but if he has an objection he is to state on what grounds.


If any Officers be absent from the Ship, when a Captain receives orders to sail, or to hold himself in readiness to sail, he is to send their names to the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer present, or (where there is no senior Officer) to the Secretary of the Admiralty, with such information respecting their absence as he may be able to give, that, if it shall be thought proper, other Officers may be appointed in their stead.


When a Captain is removed from one ship to another, and his wish can be complied with without inconvenience to the service, he may take with him such number of subordinate Officers and Men as the Commander-in-chief may deem proper, according to the nature of the case, not, however, exceeding, in any instance, twenty men from a Line-of-Battle Ship, and in proportion from other Ships, of whom not more than a third are to be Petty Officers, in addition to his Coxswain, Steward, and Cook; and he is to discharge from the Ship, to which he is removed, to that which he leaves, the same number of subordinate Officers and men, corresponding in ratings with, and equal in quality to, those accompanying him, as may be arranged between the two Captains, or in the event of their differing, reference theron is to be made to the senior Officer present, and if no senior Officer be present, then to the Commander-in-chief or commanding Officer of the station. But if he be removed from one ship without being appointed to another, his own Steward and Cook only may be discharged to accompany him.


Petty Officers, Seamen, and Boys, who have not completed their engagement for continuous service, may, in certain cases, be permitted to receive their discharge on paying the sums specified in the following scale, together with whatever sum they may be in debt to the Crown at the time of their discharge; but it is to be understood that neither men nor boys are to be considered as entitled to claim their discharge by purchase, unless from peculiar circumstances, which are always to be clearly explained, the Admiralty should think fit to sanction the same when requested: Officers in command are therefore to be careful not to forward applications for discharge by purchase without due consideration, and being fully convinced that the applicants have good and substantial reasons for seeking their discharge, and more especially that their conduct has been satisfactory.

Scale at which Continuous Service Men and Boys will be allowed to purchase their discharge under the foregoing circumstances and conditions:-


Under 5 years service in man's rating ... ... ...£12
After 5 and under 7 years ditto ... ... ... 10
After 7 and under 9 years ditto ... ... ... 8
After 9 and under 10 years ditto ... ... ... 5
After 10 years and upwards, from the age of 18, ditto ... ... Free.

Men who are entitled to wear Good Conduct Badges will be allowed a reduction of 2 l upon the foregoing rates.


Under 3 years' service ... ... .. ... £8
After 3 years' and under five years' service ... ... ... 10
After 5 years' service... ... ... ... ... 12

No man or boy is to be discharged by purchase without the authority of the Admiralty, nor until the Accountant-General of the Navy shall have intimated to the Captain of the Ship to which the applicant belongs the amount of purchase money to be required.

Petty Officers and Seamen who (after 25 October, 1861,) purchase their Discharge from the Royal Navy, and who re-enter within Six months, for a further period of Ten years' Continuous Service, shall be entitled to have a portion of the Purchase Money returned to them according to the following scale:-
One-half of the money actually paid for their Discharge will be returned to men who have served in man's rating Five Years and under in the Royal Navy and declare such service on re-entry.
One-third of the Purchase Money will be returned to men who have served in man's rating over Five, and less than ten years in the Royal Navy.
No portion of the Purchase Money will be returned to men who have served ten or more years.
Any Bounty received by a Seaman re-entering is to be deducted from the sum he would be entitled to receive under the above Regulations.

All applications for the re-payment of a portion of Purchase Money must be made to the Accountant-General.


Petty Officers, Seamen, Marines, and Boys, in Hospital at home, on the Ship to which they belong sailing for a Foreign Station, are, under the direction of the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer present, before such ship proceeds to sea, to he marked "D.S.Qy. ?" on the books, and discharged to the Flag Ship at the port nearest to the Hospital, as supernumeraries for victuals only, (but not with their original entry and charges,) and they are to be checked sick on the Flag Ship's books until their return from the Hospital, or until they are otherwise disposed of, - the vacancies so occasioned being, as far as possible, filled up before the ship sails.

Care is to be taken to insert in the lists sent to the Flag Ship of such men and boys, the date on which they were checked to the Hospital, in order that they may be discharged from off the books at the proper time, according to circumstances, as directed in the Regulations in force on that head; and the date of their allotment also is to he noted, if they have one in force.

On transferring men or boys to a Flag Ship's books, under the foregoing instructions, the Captain of the Ship from whence they are so transferred, is, before sailing from the port, to acquaint the Superintendent of the Hospital, by letter of the date when, and the name of the Ship to which, such men and boys have been respectively discharged, so that the necessary notations may be made by that Officer on the pay documents.


Petty Officers, Seamen, and Boys, belonging to ships that have sailed for Foreign Stations, are, on being sent from the Hospital to the Flag Ship, to be borne for disposal; Marines arc to be sent to the nearest Divisional Head Quarters; but Stewards, Servants, and Bandsmen are to be discharged to the shore, unless a written request shall have been left by the Captain, with the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer, to have them sent out to rejoin their Ship, when recovered, by any opportunity that may offer of affording them a passage in one of Her Majesty's Ships.


The death of an Officer belonging to any one of Her Majesty's Ships is to be reported by the Captain, without loss of time, to the Secretary of the Admiralty, as well as to his Commander-in-chief, and the address of the nearest relative or friend of the deceased is to be stated in the report. When any Petty Officer, Seaman, Marine, or Boy belonging to a Ship shall die, the Officer in command is to direct a messmate of the deceased, the Master-at-Arms, or Seamen's Schoolmaster, to communicate the intelligence to his nearest relative or friend.


When it may be necessary to hold an inquest touching the death of any person on board, and belonging to one of Her Majesty's Ships, the Admiralty Coroner, if the Ship be within his jurisdiction, is to be acquainted by the Captain, with the circumstances, - care being taken to have all the witnesses in attendance at the time the Coroner may appoint for holding the inquest: if the Ship be not within the jurisdiction of an Admiralty Coroner, then the inquest may be held by the Coroner of the district; but in neither case is any Officer or man in actual service and full pay of the Fleet to be called upon to serve as a juror on these inquiries. The result of the inquest is to be immediately reported, by the Captain, to the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer present, for the information of the Admiralty.


On every occasion of Officers of any rank being paid-off or discharged, a return is to be made to the Admiralty, through the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer present, of their respective addresses or intended residences. Officers arriving from Foreign Stations, invalided, on promotion, or otherwise, are not to be permitted to leave the ship without reporting their addresses.


If the Captain shall at any time discover in his Ship's Company deserters from other Ships, he is forthwith to report the same to his Commander-in-chief or senior Officer, or if he be not under the orders of one, to the Secretary of the Admiralty; or he is to send them to their proper Ships, if they he present, and the directions of the senior Officer, or of the Admiralty, for their disposal, cannot be obtained without creating delay. In the event of any of the crew being discovered as deserter from the Army, Royal Marines, or Militia, information thereof is to be immediately forwarded to the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer, or to the Admiralty, as above directed, with a description of their persons, and every particular likely to lead to their identification. On Foreign Stations, if the Regiment or Corps to which the deserters belong be present, the Captain is also to communicate with the commanding Officer thereof, and on the offenders being identified he is to deliver them up to him, under the permission of the senior Naval Officer at the place; but no such deserters are to be sent to England from Her Majesty's Ships abroad, without orders to that effect from the Admiralty.


When the Officer in command has occasion to send on shore in any part of Her Majesty's Dominions to arrest an offender against the Naval Discipline Act, he may furnish the person sent on that duty with a warrant in the form in the Appendix, as directed in the 43rd section of the said Act.


Cases of extraordinary merit in saving life, which, in the opinion of the Captain, may deserve the rewards of the Royal Humane Society, are to be represented by him, through the proper channel, to the Secretary of the Admiralty.

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